QA. Answer any two from the following question in about 150 words. 2×5=10

1.Discuss the significance of kinship system in society.

ANSWER:-The kinship system is a fundamental aspect of social organization in many societies, and it has a significant impact on various aspects of social life. Here are a few ways in which the kinship system is significant in society:

Social Identity: The kinship system provides individuals with a sense of identity and belonging within their society. It is often used to define one’s relationships with others and to determine social status and roles.

Family Structure: The kinship system helps to define family relationships and structure, including the roles and responsibilities of family members, and the ways in which family resources are shared and distributed.

Marriage and Descent: The kinship system is often used to determine who is eligible for marriage and to regulate descent, inheritance, and property rights. This is especially important in societies where the transmission of property and status is an important social and economic issue.

Social Support: The kinship system can provide individuals with emotional and practical support, including help with child-rearing, care for the elderly, and assistance during times of need.

Cultural Significance: The kinship system is also an important cultural marker, reflecting the values, beliefs, and traditions of a society. In many cultures, the kinship system is deeply intertwined with religious beliefs and rituals.

In conclusion, the kinship system is a critical component of social organization in many societies and plays a significant role in shaping individual and group identity, family structure, social support, and cultural heritage.

2.Compare the Marxian and Durkheimian perspective of religion.


Marx and Durkheim both had different perspectives on the role of religion in society.

Marx viewed religion as an instrument of oppression and a means by which the ruling class maintained control over the masses. He saw religion as a tool used by the ruling class to distract people from their suffering and to justify their exploitation. Marx believed that religion was a form of false consciousness, which prevented people from recognizing their true interests and the source of their oppression.

Durkheim, on the other hand, saw religion as a source of social cohesion and a means of creating solidarity among members of a society. He believed that religion played an important role in creating a shared moral code, which helped to regulate behavior and maintain social order. Durkheim saw religion as a reflection of the collective consciousness of a society and as an expression of its shared values and beliefs.

In conclusion, Marx and Durkheim had fundamentally different perspectives on religion. While Marx saw religion as a tool of oppression, Durkheim viewed it as a source of social cohesion and order. These differing perspectives reflect their larger philosophical differences, with Marx emphasizing the role of class conflict and Durkheim focusing on social integration and solidarity.

3.Write a note on the process through which society teaches the younger generation to internalise to the norms of society.

ANSWER:-The process through which society teaches the younger generation to internalize its norms is complex and multi-faceted. It occurs through a combination of socialization agents such as family, peers, education, media, and religion. These agents help to shape the values, beliefs, and attitudes of the young generation and influence their behavior. Additionally, positive reinforcement, such as praise and rewards, and negative reinforcement, such as punishment, can also help to reinforce the norms of society. Through these mechanisms, the younger generation gradually internalizes society’s norms and comes to view them as natural and acceptable. Over time, these internalized norms become a part of the individual’s sense of self and guide their actions and decisions.

B. Answer the following question within 75 words. Marks: 1X3=3

Q 1: Is there any impact of globalisation upon environment? Briefly discuss.

ANSWER: Yes, globalisation has a significant impact on the environment. Globalisation involves increased economic interdependence and exchange of goods, services, and information across borders, which leads to increased production, transportation, and consumption. This increased economic activity results in increased greenhouse gas emissions, air and water pollution, deforestation, and habitat destruction, among other environmental impacts.

Additionally, globalization has led to the spread of environmentally harmful practices, such as the use of non-renewable energy sources and the production of single-use plastic, to countries that may not have previously had exposure to these practices.

Despite these negative impacts, globalisation also provides opportunities for increased environmental protection through the sharing of environmental technologies and best practices, as well as through the development of international agreements and cooperation on environmental issues. Overall, the impact of globalisation on the environment is complex and multi-faceted, with both positive and negative consequences.

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