Answer :

Prevention of Landslides:



Powers and Functions of the President of India

Executive Powers

  1. Appointment of Key Officials: The President appoints the Prime Minister, other members of the Council of Ministers, the Governors of states, judges of the Supreme Court and High Courts, the Attorney General of India, the Comptroller and Auditor General, and other key officials.
  2. Administration of Union Territories: The President directly administers Union Territories through appointed administrators.
  3. Head of the State Executive: All executive actions of the government of India are taken in the name of the President. The President also receives credentials from ambassadors and high commissioners of other countries.

Legislative Powers

  1. Summoning and Proroguing Parliament: The President has the power to summon and prorogue the sessions of Parliament and dissolve the Lok Sabha.
  2. Assent to Bills: A bill passed by Parliament becomes law only after the President’s assent. The President can withhold assent, return a bill (if it is not a money bill) for reconsideration, or give assent.
  3. Ordinance Making Power: When Parliament is not in session, the President can promulgate ordinances that have the force of law. These ordinances must be approved by Parliament within six weeks of reassembling.
  4. Addressing Parliament: The President addresses the first session of Parliament after each general election and at the commencement of the first session of each year, outlining the government’s policies and plans.
  5. Nomination of Members: The President can nominate 12 members to the Rajya Sabha (Council of States) from among persons having special knowledge or practical experience in literature, science, art, and social service. The President can also nominate two members to the Lok Sabha (House of the People) from the Anglo-Indian community if it is not adequately represented.
  1. Appointment of Judges: The President appoints the Chief Justice and other judges of the Supreme Court and High Courts.
  2. Granting Pardons and Other Clemencies: The President has the power to grant pardons, reprieves, respites, or remissions of punishment, or to suspend, remit, or commute the sentence of any person convicted of an offense, especially in cases involving the death penalty.
  1. Conduct of Foreign Affairs: The President represents India in international forums and affairs. The President appoints ambassadors and high commissioners to other countries and receives foreign diplomats.
  2. Treaties and Agreements: All international treaties and agreements are negotiated and concluded in the name of the President, although they require ratification by Parliament.
  1. Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces: The President is the supreme commander of the Indian armed forces and can declare war or conclude peace, subject to the approval of Parliament.
  2. Appointments and Commissions: The President appoints the chiefs of the army, navy, and air force.
  1. National Emergency: The President can proclaim a national emergency when there is a threat to the security of India or any part of its territory, whether by war, external aggression, or armed rebellion. This requires the approval of Parliament.
  2. President’s Rule: The President can impose President’s Rule in a state if the state government cannot function according to the provisions of the Constitution. This also requires parliamentary approval.
  3. Financial Emergency: The President can declare a financial emergency if the financial stability or credit of India is threatened. This proclamation must be approved by Parliament within two months.


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