Answer :

Social Structure and Organization

Economic Support and Cooperation

Social Support System

Cultural Transmission

Answer :

Marxian Perspective

  1. Religion as Ideology: Marx argued that religion is a tool used by the ruling classes to maintain control over the working classes. It functions as an ideology that justifies and reinforces the existing social order, making it appear natural and immutable.
  2. “Opium of the People”: Marx famously described religion as the “opium of the people,” suggesting that it provides an illusory happiness that distracts the proletariat from their real suffering and the need for revolutionary change. By promising rewards in an afterlife, religion helps to placate the oppressed and reduce the likelihood of social upheaval.
  3. Economic Base and Superstructure: In Marx’s materialist conception of history, religion is part of the superstructure, shaped by the economic base. The dominant economic system influences religious beliefs and practices, which in turn help to sustain that system.
  4. Alienation: Marx saw religion as a form of alienation, where individuals are estranged from their true human essence. Instead of addressing their actual conditions of exploitation, people turn to religion for solace, which further alienates them from their capacity to recognize and change their social realities.

Durkheimian Perspective

Emile Durkheim, a founding figure in sociology, had a functionalist perspective on religion, emphasizing its role in social cohesion and stability. His key points include:

  1. Social Cohesion: Durkheim argued that religion serves to bind people together, creating a sense of community and collective consciousness. Shared beliefs and rituals reinforce social solidarity and the collective identity of a group.
  2. Sacred and Profane: Durkheim distinguished between the sacred and the profane. The sacred refers to things set apart and forbidden, inspiring awe and reverence, while the profane encompasses the ordinary and mundane aspects of life. Religion is the system through which societies identify and organize the sacred.
  3. Collective Effervescence: Durkheim introduced the concept of collective effervescence, which refers to the energy and harmony experienced during communal religious rituals. These moments reinforce the bonds among individuals and strengthen the social fabric.
  4. Function of Religion: For Durkheim, the primary function of religion is to promote social integration and moral regulation. It provides a framework for social norms and values, guiding individual behavior in ways that benefit the larger society.


  1. Function in Society: Marx viewed religion as a mechanism of social control that maintains inequality, while Durkheim saw it as a fundamental component of social cohesion and order.
  2. Nature of Religion: For Marx, religion is an ideological tool that masks the true nature of social relations and hinders revolutionary change. For Durkheim, it is a vital social institution that reinforces collective identity and shared values.
  3. Perspective on Change: Marx emphasized the potential for religion to obstruct social change by perpetuating false consciousness. Durkheim, on the other hand, viewed religion as evolving with society, adapting to new social conditions to maintain its integrative function.
  4. Theoretical Approach: Marx’s approach is rooted in economic determinism and conflict theory, focusing on power dynamics and material conditions. Durkheim’s approach is functionalist, emphasizing the role of social institutions in maintaining societal stability and cohesion.


The process through which a society teaches the younger generation to internalize its various aspects is known as socialization. This is a comprehensive process that involves the transmission of culture, norms, values, and roles from one generation to the next. Socialization is crucial for the continuity of society and for individuals to function effectively within it. The process can be broken down into several key components:

1. Primary Socialization

This is the initial phase of socialization that occurs in early childhood, primarily within the family. Key aspects include:

  • Language Acquisition: Children learn to communicate, which is fundamental to social interaction.
  • Basic Norms and Values: Through interaction with family members, children learn what is considered acceptable behavior, such as manners, respect, and basic moral principles.
  • Emotional Development: Children develop emotional responses and coping mechanisms, largely influenced by their caregivers’ reactions and guidance.

2. Secondary Socialization

This phase continues throughout life, with significant emphasis during schooling years. It involves learning appropriate behavior and expectations outside the family. Key agents include:

  • Schools: Schools are primary institutions for teaching societal norms, discipline, and knowledge. They instill values such as punctuality, obedience, and the importance of academic achievement.
  • Peer Groups: Interaction with peers provides opportunities for children to learn social skills, cooperation, competition, and the nuances of group dynamics.
  • Media: Various forms of media, including television, internet, and social media, play a significant role in shaping perceptions, attitudes, and values.

3. Tertiary Socialization

This refers to the ongoing process of socialization that occurs in adulthood. It includes adaptation to new roles and environments, such as entering the workforce, marriage, and parenthood. Key aspects include:

  • Workplace Socialization: Learning the norms, values, and expectations of the professional environment, including teamwork, punctuality, and adherence to organizational culture.
  • Community Involvement: Participation in community activities and organizations helps individuals understand and fulfill their roles as citizens, including civic responsibilities and social engagement.
  • Continuing Education: Adult education and professional development opportunities contribute to lifelong learning and adaptation to societal changes.

Mechanisms of Socialization

  1. Imitation: Children learn behaviors and norms by observing and mimicking the actions of others, especially parents and siblings.
  2. Instruction: Direct teaching from parents, teachers, and other authority figures provides explicit guidance on expected behaviors and values.
  3. Reinforcement: Positive reinforcement (rewards) and negative reinforcement (punishments) help shape behavior by encouraging adherence to social norms and discouraging deviance.
  4. Role Modeling: Influential figures, such as parents, teachers, and public figures, serve as role models, exemplifying desirable behaviors and attitudes.
  5. Participation: Engaging in various social activities, such as family gatherings, school functions, and community events, helps individuals internalize societal norms through active involvement.

Importance of Socialization

  • Cultural Continuity: Socialization ensures the preservation and transmission of culture, traditions, and societal values.
  • Social Order: By teaching individuals the norms and rules of society, socialization helps maintain social order and reduce deviance.
  • Personal Development: Socialization contributes to the development of identity, self-concept, and the ability to interact successfully with others.
  • Social Integration: It helps individuals integrate into society, understand their roles, and develop a sense of belonging.

In summary, socialization is a multifaceted and lifelong process essential for the functioning and continuity of society. Through various agents and mechanisms, individuals learn and internalize the cultural norms, values, and roles that enable them to participate fully and effectively in their community.

B. Answer the following question Marks: 10×1=10

Q 1: Is there any impact of globalisation upon environment? Briefly discuss


Globalization has a profound impact on the environment, encompassing both positive and negative effects. Here are some key points:

Negative Impacts

  1. Increased Pollution: The expansion of industrial activities and international trade can lead to higher levels of air, water, and soil pollution. Factories in developing countries often lack strict environmental regulations, resulting in significant emissions and waste.
  2. Deforestation: Global demand for commodities such as palm oil, beef, and soy has driven extensive deforestation, particularly in tropical regions. This leads to habitat loss, biodiversity decline, and increased carbon dioxide emissions.
  3. Climate Change: The globalized economy has increased greenhouse gas emissions due to the rise in transportation (shipping, aviation) and energy-intensive production processes. These emissions contribute significantly to global warming and climate change.
  4. Resource Depletion: Globalization accelerates the consumption of natural resources like minerals, fossil fuels, and water, often leading to over-exploitation and unsustainable extraction practices.

Positive Impacts

  1. Technology Transfer: Globalization facilitates the transfer of environmentally friendly technologies and practices across borders. This can include renewable energy technologies, pollution control mechanisms, and sustainable agricultural practices.
  2. International Environmental Agreements: Global interconnectedness has led to increased collaboration on environmental issues, resulting in international treaties and agreements such as the Paris Agreement on climate change.
  3. Global Awareness and Advocacy: Globalization has heightened awareness of environmental issues through international media, NGOs, and social networks. This has spurred global movements advocating for environmental protection and sustainability.
  4. Economic Growth and Environmental Investment: Economic growth driven by globalization can provide the financial resources necessary for environmental protection and sustainable development initiatives. Developed countries can support environmental projects and conservation efforts in developing nations.


Globalization has a dual impact on the environment. On the negative side, it can lead to increased pollution, deforestation, climate change, and resource depletion. On the positive side, it enables the transfer of green technologies, fosters international cooperation on environmental issues, raises global awareness, and can provide resources for environmental protection. Balancing these impacts requires effective global governance, sustainable practices, and concerted efforts to mitigate environmental harm while leveraging the benefits of globalization.

C. Answer the following question Marks: 10×1=10 Q

1) What is meant by social change? Briefly explain any two processes of social change.


Social Change

Social change refers to significant alterations over time in behavior patterns, cultural values and norms, and social structures within a society. This transformation can occur gradually or rapidly and may affect all aspects of society, including institutions, relationships, and practices. Social change can be driven by various factors, including technology, economic shifts, political movements, cultural transformations, and environmental factors.

Processes of Social Change

  1. Urbanization

Urbanization is the process by which an increasing proportion of a population moves from rural areas to urban areas, leading to the growth and expansion of cities. This process impacts social change in several ways:

  • Economic Shifts: Urbanization typically brings about a shift from an agrarian-based economy to one focused on industry and services. This transition often leads to new job opportunities, changes in labor markets, and economic growth.
  • Social Structures: The density and diversity of urban populations foster new social structures and networks. People in cities are more likely to encounter diverse groups, which can lead to greater social integration, but also to social stratification and inequality.
  • Cultural Change: Urban areas often become centers of cultural innovation and exchange. This can result in the spread of new ideas, lifestyles, and cultural practices, contributing to societal evolution.
  1. Technological Innovation

Technological innovation is the development and application of new technologies, which can drastically alter the way societies function. Key impacts of technological innovation on social change include:

  • Communication: Advances in communication technology, such as the internet and mobile phones, have transformed how people interact, access information, and form communities. This has led to greater global connectivity and the rise of social media as a powerful force in shaping public opinion and social movements.
  • Work and Economy: Technological advancements can lead to the creation of new industries and the obsolescence of others. Automation and artificial intelligence, for instance, are changing the nature of work, leading to job displacement in some sectors while creating new opportunities in others.
  • Lifestyle Changes: Innovations in transportation, healthcare, and entertainment influence daily life, improving quality of life, increasing leisure time, and altering social norms and expectations.


Social change encompasses significant transformations in societal behaviors, values, and structures. Processes like urbanization and technological innovation are crucial drivers of social change, each reshaping society in profound ways. Urbanization influences economic structures, social networks, and cultural dynamics, while technological innovation transforms communication, work, and lifestyles. Understanding these processes helps in comprehending how societies evolve and adapt over time.

MA 1ST SEMESTER Sociology: An Introduction ASSIGNMENT 2024

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