QA. Answer any two from the following questions in about 150 words. 2×5=10

Q1: Discuss Max Weber’s theory of Social Action.

Answer:-Max Weber’s theory of social action refers to his approach to understanding human behavior in social contexts. According to Weber, social action is an individual’s purposeful interaction with others, in which the actions of one person have an impact on the actions of others. He argues that all social action is motivated by a subjective understanding of the situation, and that this understanding is shaped by cultural and social factors.

Weber identified four types of social action:

Instrumental or goal-oriented action: This type of action is characterized by the pursuit of a specific goal, and is based on a rational calculation of the means to achieve that goal.

Affective or emotional action: This type of action is motivated by emotions and feelings, such as love, anger, or fear.

Traditional action: This type of action is based on customary practices and habits, and is often performed without conscious thought.

Value-oriented action: This type of action is motivated by a commitment to a set of values, and is based on the belief that these values are important and worth pursuing.

Weber also developed the concept of “verstehen,” or understanding, which refers to the need to understand the subjective meanings and motivations behind people’s actions in order to fully comprehend social behavior. According to Weber, verstehen is necessary for the study of social action, as it allows us to understand the perspectives and motivations of individuals and groups in society.

In conclusion, Max Weber’s theory of social action is an important contribution to the study of sociology and human behavior, as it highlights the role of culture, values, and subjective understandings in shaping human interactions and social relationships.

Q2: Discuss the contribution of Enlightenment to the emergence of Sociology as a discipline.

Answer:-The Enlightenment, an intellectual and cultural movement in the 18th century, greatly influenced the emergence of sociology as a discipline. The Enlightenment emphasized reason, science, and individualism, leading to a questioning of traditional social structures and norms. This critical outlook laid the foundation for the development of sociology as a discipline that seeks to understand and analyze society scientifically. Additionally, Enlightenment thinkers such as Montesquieu, Voltaire, and Rousseau wrote about the importance of understanding society and its institutions, which laid the foundation for the development of sociological theories. Furthermore, the concept of the “social contract,” which was central to Enlightenment thought, influenced the development of sociology as a discipline that seeks to understand the agreements and relationships that make up society. Overall, the Enlightenment’s emphasis on reason, science, and individualism, as well as its critical approach to social structures, laid the foundation for the emergence of sociology as a discipline.

Q3: Explaining how Functionalist perspective of understanding society is different from the Conflict Perspective.

Answer:- Functionalist and Conflict perspectives are two different sociological theories that offer different views on how society operates.

The Functionalist perspective, also known as structural functionalism, sees society as a complex system of interrelated parts that work together to maintain stability and order. From this perspective, social institutions such as the family, education, and the economy are seen as functional components that serve a specific purpose in maintaining the stability of society as a whole. This perspective views social problems as disruptions to the functioning of these institutions and seeks to find solutions that restore order.

On the other hand, the Conflict perspective views society as a struggle for power and resources among different social groups. From this perspective, social institutions and practices are seen as a result of ongoing power struggles, rather than as functional components that maintain social stability. This perspective sees social problems as the result of conflicts between dominant and subordinate groups, and seeks to bring about change by empowering marginalized groups and challenging the status quo.

In conclusion, while the Functionalist perspective sees society as a harmonious system of interdependent parts, the Conflict perspective sees society as a site of ongoing power struggles and social conflict.

B. Answer any one of the following questions in about 150 words 1×3=3

Q1: Critically discuss the changing relationship between man and nature.

Answer:-The relationship between man and nature has undergone significant changes throughout human history. In the past, humans were largely at the mercy of nature and saw themselves as part of a larger ecosystem. However, with the rise of modernity and industrialization, humans began to see themselves as separate from and in control of nature.

In the 19th and early 20th centuries, the dominant view was that nature was a resource to be harnessed for human benefit, with little consideration for the long-term consequences. This led to widespread deforestation, pollution, and other forms of environmental degradation.

However, in recent decades, there has been a growing recognition of the importance of preserving the natural environment and a recognition of the interdependence between humans and nature. The development of environmentalism as a social movement has brought attention to the negative impact of human activities on the environment and has led to a growing awareness of the need for sustainable development.

In addition, advances in science and technology have given us a deeper understanding of the complex relationships between human activities and natural systems, which has led to a more nuanced view of the relationship between man and nature. Today, there is a growing appreciation for the role of nature in providing essential ecosystem services, such as clean air and water, as well as for the intrinsic value of biodiversity.

In conclusion, the relationship between man and nature has changed from one of domination and control to one of interdependence and stewardship. While challenges remain, there is a growing recognition of the importance of protecting the natural environment and preserving it for future generations.

Q2: Explain how human activities have led to the degradation of the environment.

Answer:-Human activities such as deforestation, industrialization, urbanization, transportation, and agriculture have led to the degradation of the environment. These activities result in increased greenhouse gas emissions, air and water pollution, loss of biodiversity, soil degradation, and the depletion of natural resources. Additionally, waste generation and disposal, especially plastic waste, have also contributed to environmental degradation. Climate change and global warming are some of the most significant consequences of these activities, leading to rising sea levels, more frequent natural disasters, and changes in weather patterns. These environmental problems pose serious threats to both human health and the future of the planet.

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