KKHOU ASSIGNTMENT : MA IN EDUCATION 2022 PAPER 1

COURSE TITLE : PHILOSOPHICAL FOUNDATIONS OF EDUCATION (PGED S1 01)

A. Answer any one from the following questions within 150 words: 1X5=5

Q 1: Discuss the salient features of the Sankhya Philosophy.

ANSWER: Sankhya is one of the six major systems of Hindu philosophy. The salient features are:

Dualism: Sankhya posits a dualism of consciousness and matter, with matter being composed of unchanging, eternal particles called “prakriti”.

Gunas: Sankhya identifies three qualities or “gunas” that pervade prakriti: sattva (purity), rajas (activity), and tamas (inertia).

Purusha: Sankhya also posits the existence of pure consciousness, called “purusha”, which is separate from prakriti.

Evolution of the universe: According to Sankhya, prakriti evolves into the material world through a process of self-evolution, leading to the diversity of life forms and the manifestation of the universe.

Release from suffering: The goal of Sankhya philosophy is to achieve release (moksha) from the cycle of rebirth and suffering, which is accomplished by gaining knowledge of the distinction between purusha and prakriti.

No role of God: Sankhya philosophy does not include a deity or a creator God, instead relying on individual consciousness to achieve liberation.

2.Elaborate the different types of universal expressions forwarded by Muslim philosophers.

ANSWER:Muslim philosophers developed various theories of universal expression in the Islamic world, including:

Conceptualism: This theory holds that universal expressions are concepts in the mind and have no independent existence outside the mind.

Moderate Realism: This theory holds that universal expressions have a real existence, but not as separate entities, rather as aspects of individual things.

Extreme Realism: This theory asserts that universal expressions exist independently of individual things and have a real and objective existence.

Nominalism: This theory denies the existence of universal expressions and holds that they are mere names or labels assigned to individual things.

Essentialism: This theory asserts that universal expressions are the necessary and inherent characteristics of individual things, and that things cannot exist without them.

These theories were influenced by Greek philosophy and have been the subject of much debate among Muslim philosophers. Some of the most prominent Muslim philosophers, such as Al-Farabi, Ibn Rushd (Averroes), and Ibn Sina (Avicenna), have discussed these theories in their works and attempted to reconcile the various views.

3.What is Naturalism? Discuss its different types

Naturalism is a philosophical stance that emphasizes the role of natural causes and laws in explaining all phenomena, including human behavior and thought. There are several types of naturalism, including:

Metaphysical Naturalism: This type of naturalism holds that nature is all that exists, and that everything can be reduced to natural causes and laws. There is no supernatural or transcendent realm.

Methodological Naturalism: This type of naturalism holds that the scientific method should only consider natural causes and laws when explaining phenomena. It allows for the possibility of supernatural or transcendent explanations, but they cannot be tested scientifically and thus are not considered in scientific inquiry.

Epistemological Naturalism: This type of naturalism holds that our knowledge of the world should be based on the natural world and natural processes, and that all knowledge should be based on sensory experience and reason.

Psychological Naturalism: This type of naturalism holds that mental processes can be reduced to natural processes in the brain and that human behavior can be explained by natural causes and laws.

Axiological Naturalism: This type of naturalism holds that values and ethics can be derived from natural causes and laws, and that they are not dependent on supernatural or transcendent sources.

These different types of naturalism overlap and interact with each other, but they emphasize different aspects of the naturalistic perspective.

B. Answer any one from the following questions within 150 words: 1X5=5

1.What are the educational significance of various forms of Realism?

ANSWER:Realism, in philosophy of education, refers to the belief that the world has an objective reality that exists independently of our perception and interpretation of it. The following are some of the educational significance of different forms of realism:

Scientific Realism: This form of realism emphasizes the importance of scientific knowledge and the scientific method for gaining knowledge about the world. It highlights the importance of evidence-based learning and critical thinking in education.

Objectivist Realism: This form of realism emphasizes the importance of objective facts and knowledge and the need to teach these facts in an objective and neutral manner. It values the transmission of cultural heritage and objective knowledge.

Moral Realism: This form of realism holds that moral values have a basis in objective reality, and that moral education should aim to help students understand these values and develop a strong moral character.

Political Realism: This form of realism emphasizes the importance of understanding the complexities of political systems and the need to prepare students to engage in political life and make informed decisions.

Naturalistic Realism: This form of realism emphasizes the importance of understanding the natural world and the role that science and the scientific method play in discovering its workings. It values hands-on learning and the use of observation and experimentation in education.

Each form of realism has its own educational significance and contributes to a more complete understanding of the world and our place in it. They can inform educational goals and methods, and shape the curriculum and instructional practices.

2.Discuss briefly the aims of education forwarded by Swami Vivekananda.

Answer:-Swami Vivekananda, an Indian philosopher and spiritual leader, had a holistic view of education that aimed to develop the entire person – body, mind, and spirit. The following were some of the aims of education forwarded by Swami Vivekananda:

Character Development: Education should aim to develop strong character and ethics, and help students to cultivate moral values such as truthfulness, honesty, and compassion.

Spiritual Growth: Education should aim to develop the spiritual dimension of the individual and help students to connect with the divine and find inner peace.

Physical Development: Education should aim to develop physical strength, health, and wellness, and help students to understand the connection between the body and mind.

Intellectual Development: Education should aim to develop critical thinking and reasoning skills, and help students to gain a broad and diverse knowledge base.

Social Development: Education should aim to develop social skills and help students to understand the importance of community and cooperation, and the need to serve others.

Self-Realization: Education should aim to help students understand their true nature and to cultivate self-awareness and self-realization.

Swami Vivekananda believed that education should be holistic and aimed at developing the whole person, not just the intellect. He emphasized the importance of a balanced education that fostered physical, mental, and spiritual growth.

3.Discuss the basic principles of the philosophy of Froebel

Answer:-Friedrich Froebel (1782-1852) was a German educator and the founder of the Kindergarten, a play-based approach to early childhood education. Froebel’s philosophy of education was based on the following principles:

Holistic Development: Froebel believed that education should aim to develop the whole person, not just the intellect. He emphasized the importance of physical, emotional, social, and spiritual development in addition to intellectual growth.

Play-Based Learning: Froebel believed that play was the most natural and effective way for young children to learn. He emphasized the importance of hands-on, experiential learning that was rooted in the child’s interests and needs.

Nature-Based Learning: Froebel believed that nature was an important source of learning and inspiration. He emphasized the importance of incorporating the study of nature into the curriculum, and the importance of outdoor play and exploration.

Self-Directed Learning: Froebel believed that education should empower students to take control of their own learning and to develop their own interests and passions. He emphasized the importance of giving students the freedom to explore and create, and the importance of respecting their individuality.

Community-Based Learning: Froebel believed that education should be a community-based experience that brought children, teachers, and families together. He emphasized the importance of creating a supportive and inclusive learning environment that valued cooperation and collaboration.

Froebel’s philosophy of education had a profound impact on the field of early childhood education, and it continues to influence pedagogical practices today. The focus on holistic development, play-based learning, nature-based learning, self-directed learning, and community-based learning are still considered important principles of early childhood education.

C. Answer any one from the following questions within 75 words: 1X3=3

1.Give the etymological meaning of the word ‘Philosophy

The word “philosophy” comes from the Greek words “philos” (meaning “love” or “friendship”) and “sophia” (meaning “wisdom”). When combined, the word philosophy literally means “the love of wisdom.” Philosophy, as a field of study, is concerned with understanding the fundamental nature of reality, knowledge, and existence. It seeks to answer questions about the meaning of life, the nature of the world, and our place in it, and to explore fundamental concepts such as truth, beauty, and morality. In essence, philosophy is the pursuit of wisdom and understanding, and the exploration of the deepest questions about the nature of the world and our place in it.

2: Mention the six stages of studying Indian Philosophy.

Answer:-The six stages of studying Indian Philosophy are:

  • The Vedic period
  • The early Upanishadic period
  • The age of the great Upanishads
  • The age of the Bhagavad Gita
  • The age of the major philosophical systems
  • The age of the devotional and mystical movements.


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