QA. Answer any two from the following questions in about 150 words. 2×5=10

(1) Briefly explain the emergence of Sociology in India.

Answer:- The emergence of sociology in India can be traced back to the late 19th and early 20th centuries, during the period of colonialism and modernization. Indian intellectuals, influenced by Western sociology and European Enlightenment thought, began to study and critique Indian society, culture and traditions. This led to the development of a new discipline, known as sociology, that aimed to understand and analyze the social, political and cultural changes taking place in India at the time.

One of the early pioneers of sociology in India was G.S. Ghurye, who is considered to be the father of Indian sociology. Ghurye drew on the works of Western sociologists like Emile Durkheim and Max Weber, as well as Indian traditions and cultural practices, to study Indian society.

The first department of sociology in India was established at the University of Bombay in 1948, and since then sociology has become an important field of study in India, with numerous departments and research centers dedicated to the study of Indian society and culture. Indian sociology is characterized by its commitment to both, understanding the specificities of Indian society and engaging with global sociological debates and theories.

Today, sociology in India continues to play an important role in shaping our understanding of Indian society and culture, and in addressing social, political and economic challenges facing the country.

2) Explain the approach given by the Subaltern thinkers to analyse Indian Nationalism.

Answer:-The Subaltern Studies Group was a group of scholars in India who sought to challenge and critique dominant narratives in Indian history and politics. With regards to Indian nationalism, the Subaltern approach offers a critical perspective that critiques the dominant narratives of nationalism as represented by the Indian National Congress and other elite groups.

The Subaltern approach argues that the dominant narratives of nationalism have excluded the voices and experiences of subaltern groups, such as peasants, workers, Dalits, and women. These groups, according to the Subaltern approach, have been marginalized and oppressed within the nationalist movement, and their experiences and struggles have been largely excluded from mainstream narratives of Indian nationalism.

The Subaltern approach seeks to re-tell the history of Indian nationalism from the perspective of subaltern groups, and to give voice to their experiences and struggles. This is done through the use of new historical methods, such as the study of oral histories and local languages, that help to uncover the experiences and perspectives of subaltern groups.

By challenging the dominant narratives of Indian nationalism and giving voice to the experiences of subaltern groups, the Subaltern approach provides a more nuanced and inclusive understanding of the history of Indian nationalism and the role of subaltern groups in shaping the nation.

3.Is Indian agrarian society classless? Give reasons for your answers.

Answer:- No, Indian agrarian society is not classless. The Indian agrarian society is characterized by a complex system of social, economic and political inequalities, with different groups occupying different positions in the social hierarchy based on factors such as land ownership, access to resources, and caste.

In rural India, land ownership is a major source of social, economic and political power. The concentration of land ownership in the hands of a small group of wealthy landowners has resulted in widespread poverty and inequality among the rural population, including agricultural laborers and small farmers.

Moreover, the caste system, which is still deeply embedded in Indian society, has historically defined and reinforced social and economic inequalities in rural areas. Caste-based discrimination continues to affect access to land, credit, education and other resources, perpetuating poverty and inequality among certain groups.

In conclusion, Indian agrarian society is not classless, but is characterized by a complex system of social, economic and political inequalities, including the concentration of land ownership, caste-based discrimination, and unequal access to resources.

B. Answer any one of the following questions in about 75 words 1×3=3

Q1: Explain how rapid urbanization has led to environmental problems in India.

Answer:-Rapid urbanization in India has led to several environmental problems due to the growth of cities and the increasing demand for resources and infrastructure. Some of the key ways in which rapid urbanization has impacted the environment in India are:

1.Air pollution: Rapid urbanization has led to increased air pollution due to the growth of industries, vehicular traffic and construction activities. This has resulted in high levels of particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and other pollutants, leading to respiratory and other health problems.

2.Water pollution: Rapid urbanization has also led to the degradation of water bodies due to the discharge of untreated wastewater and industrial effluents. This has resulted in the contamination of drinking water sources, leading to health problems for people living in urban areas.

3.Land degradation: Urbanization has also led to the degradation of land in India due to the conversion of green spaces and agricultural land into urban areas. This has resulted in the loss of biodiversity, soil erosion, and the degradation of ecosystems.

4.Waste management: Rapid urbanization has also led to a growing problem of waste management in India, with increasing volumes of solid waste and plastic waste. This has resulted in the degradation of land and water bodies, and the emission of greenhouse gases.

In conclusion, rapid urbanization in India has led to several environmental problems, including air pollution, water pollution, land degradation, and waste management. Addressing these environmental challenges will require a concerted effort from government, civil society and the private sector to promote sustainable development and protect the environment.

2. Which according to you is the major environmental problem in India. Give reasons for your answer.

Answer:-One of the major environmental problems in India is air pollution.
Air pollution has become a serious health and environmental issue in India, with a large portion of the population exposed to high levels of particulate matter, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide and other pollutants. The primary sources of air pollution in India include vehicular emissions, industrial activities, and the burning of fossil fuels for energy.
Air pollution has serious consequences for human health, including respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, stroke, and lung cancer. It also contributes to global warming and climate change, and has a negative impact on the environment and biodiversity.

In addition, air pollution is a major challenge for India’s economic development, as it reduces productivity and increases healthcare costs. Addressing air pollution will require a multi-faceted approach that includes stricter regulations, the promotion of clean energy and transportation, and public awareness campaigns.

Therefore, due to its widespread impact on human health, the environment, and the economy, air pollution is one of the major environmental problems in India.

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